The campaign for New Zealand’s referendum on the electoral system is heating up. Voters will be able to cast two votes in the referendum: one for or against keeping the current mixed-member proportional (MMP) system, and a second to select from among four options for replacement in the event a majority opts for change. If the majority says change from MMP, another referendum in three years will pit MMP against the winner of the second part of this referendum.
The NZ Herald reports that the first anti-MMP billboards are going up this week “as a group of New Zealand’s richest businessmen launch their bid to turf out proportional voting.”
There is also an organized campaign in favor of one of the specific change options:
Vote for Change spokesman Jordan Williams announced yesterday the group would campaign alongside the conservative Maxim think tank for the supplementary member (SM) electoral system, the system preferred by Prime Minister John Key.1
“Supplementary Member” is a system known otherwise as Mixed-Member Majoritarian (MMM) or a “parallel” system. Unlike with the compensatory allocation of list seats under MMP, the list seats under MMM (SM) are allocated without regard to the outcome in the nominal tier (of single-seat plurality contests). So the two large parties would tend to win not only most of the nominal-tier seats (as is indeed the case under MMP), but also a proportional share of the list seats as well. By contrast, under MMP, parties win a share of all the seats–nominal and list–that is proportional to their party-list votes.2 The majoritarian bent of MMM (SM) would be even further enhanced under the specific New Zealand proposal because of the small share of the seats devoted to list-PR allocation–only 25%.3
As I see it, MMM is a perfectly reasonable choice if one is trying to “fix” the problem of existing or anticipated high fragmentation of the party system–as was the case when it was adopted in Italy and Hungary.4 However, if New Zealand has problems with the current system, excessive fragmentation is not one of them. So MMM would seem to be little more than the electoral system one opts for when one really misses the old days of plurality (FPTP) voting, but knows that option is not politically viable.
At this stage, as also reported in the same NZH article, polling suggests that MMP will be retained. A new poll released today by the NZH finds:
45 per cent of voters want to keep MMP and 28 per cent want it dropped. Only 1.2 per cent support SM, making it the least popular of the five systems that voters can choose from.
Plurality (First Past the Post) leads by a wide margin in the second part of the ballot, where the choice is among alternatives for change.
The referendum is 26 November, the same day as the general election.
- Actually, the story also notes:
This weekend, Key said New Zealand’s electoral system was ‘ultimately a matter for New Zealanders to decide, and that remains the position”.
- With some relatively minor “twists” that I will not get into here. [↩]
- The first link describes each of the alternative systems in the referendum. [↩]
- Yes, the former system in Italy and the current one in Hungary are MMM, not MMP, as some sources say. And, as long as we are tangentially on the topic, no, the changed (yet again) electoral system in Italy since 2006 is also not a form of proportional representation. [↩]